This page is about nutrients and their absorption, bioavailability, form, etc.  A food may contain a high level of a nutrient, but is it in an efficently usable form?  Is it bioavailable?  Is it paired with substances that bind to it?  These are important questions to consider when it comes to what foods are really nutritious for us. 

Problems In Mineral Absorption - Are You Getting Enough

Iron Absorption


Dietary Factors Influencing Zinc Absorption

Diseases of Iron Metabolism

Sources of Retinol

The cod liver oil controversy

Inhibition of protein glycation and advanced glycation end products by ascorbic acid and other vitamins and nutrients

VitaminD sources

New Clues About Carotenes Revealed

Does Vitamin A In Retinol Increase The Risk Of Bone Fractures?

Bioconversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A in humans

Forty-Seven Percent of Women Genetically Incapable of Getting Adequate Vitamin A From Plants

Deficiency Issues:


Heme deficiency may be a factor in the mitochondrial and neuronal decay of aging

Heme Deficiency Selectively Interrupts Assembly of Mitochondrial Complex IV in Human Fibroblasts

The role of heme and iron-sulfur clusters in mitochondrial biogenesis, maintenance, and decay with age.

Nutrient Sources, my notes:
*Values are from FitDay unless otherwise noted


*chard, swiss (potassium, vit c, vit a, iron, vit e, manganese, copper, magnesium)
*beet greens 1 cup cooked (24% magnesium, 37% potassium, 15% iron, 11% thiamin
Spinach .5 cup cooked (13% calcium, 19% iron, 21%  magnesium 13% potassium)
Asparagus (19% thiamin, lots of other nutrients)
pumpkin (iron, magnesium, postassium v E)
okra 1 cup cooked (23% manganese 14% thiamin, 15% b6, 14% magnesium)
brussel sprouts
Collards (24% calcium, 11% iron, 8% magnesium, 37% manganese)
parsley 1 cup cooked (28% iron, 10%magnesium)
beets 1 cup cooked (7% iron, 10% magnesium)
summer squash, 1 cup cooked slices (11% magnesium, 10% potassium)
Acorn squash, cooked, 1 cup cubes (23% calcium, 20% b6, 11% iron, 25% manganese, 22% magnesium) 20 net carbs


bell/sweet yellow pepper (16% B6, 8% Niacin, 569% Vit C, 11% Manganese, 10% Copper, 6% Magnesium)
*Avocado (15% Niacin, 22% Vit B6, 8% Thiamin, 29% Vit C, 18% Vit E, 13% Riboflavin, 12% Manganese, 16% Copper, 13 % Magnesium)
Strawberries (149% Vit C, 29% Manganese)

Nuts (bioavailability of minerals may be limited by phytates contained in nuts)

*Almonds (19% magnesium, 36% vit E,
black walnuts (14% magnesium, copper, manganese, phosphorous)
macadamia nuts (manganese, thiamin 23%)

Meats & Eggs

*Pork (47% thiamin 3oz)
Eggs-1 extra large (Package-Sunny Meadow : 10% Vit D, 6% iron, 6% Vit A, 15% Riboflavin, 6% Folate, 10% Phosphorous, 4% B6, 8% B12 4% Zinc)
Beef 4 oz (10-15% iron-according to package, Fitday values for Beef, top sirloin, separable lean and fat, trimmed to 1/8" fat, choice, cooked, pan-fried (a.k.a. Sirloin steak, Sirloin strip): 42% zinc, 63% B12, 19% Ribflavin, 8% Magnesium, 9% Thiamin, 22% Niacin, 25% B6, 27% Phosphorous, 48% Selenium, 7% Copper)


Heart, chicken-4 oz (zinc, iron)
liver, beef-3 oz (zinc, iron, high in common nutrients)
kidney beef 1 kidney (high in thiamin, zinc iron and common nutrients)


*Pike, walleye-- high in many nutrients
*Halibut (magnesium 23% per 3 oz)
Shrimp 25 small (Vit D 52%, 16% iron, 11% magnesium, 10% zinc)
Salmon (95% b12)
Canned Salmon with skin and bones (10-13% calcium; values FitDay: Fish, salmon, sockeye, canned, drained solids with bone, 108 % vit D, 22% niacin, 18% phosphorous, 28% selenium, 6% vit E, 7% riboflavin,  52% B12, 4% copper, magnesium & zinc)

pollock (19% magnesium)
carp (thiamin, iron, magnesium)
bluefin tuna (thiamin, v a, magnesium)
trout mixed species (thiamin)
haddock (magnesium)
Trout (v A, calcium, thiamin, v c, magnesium, potassium)
Perch (calcium, thiamin, iron, magnesium, potassium)
catfish channel wild (v D, thiamin)
turbot, european (magnesium)
herring, pacific (calcium, magnesium, potassium)

clams (really high in b12, vit c, almost all rda of iron)
oysters (a bit of everything, high in vit d, iron, zinc, magnesium, a little thiamin)
octopus (a bit of of every nutrient, high in iron, zinc among the usual)


Almond oil (27% Vit E 1 Tblsp)

Potassium Rich Foods:

27%red potato medium baked
25%1 C cooked spinach
19%4 oz Atlantic or Pacific Halibut
18%1 C cooked or canned Rhubarb
16%1 C plain yogurt
16%1 C cooked mushrooms
16%1 C cooked kohlrabi
16%1C cooked rutabaga
14%1 C cooked pumpkin
13%1 C cooked zucchini
13%4 oz salmon
13%4 oz pork chop
12%1 C cooked celery
12%1 C cooked brussel sprouts
12%1 C cooked asparagus
12%1 C cantaloup
11%4 oz canned tomato sauce
10%4 oz lean ground beef
8%4 oz cod
8%1 C cooked kale (9 raw)
8%medium tomato
8%1/4 C sunflower seeds roasted hulled

Preformed Vitamin A Sources:Calories:
10%      1/3 Cup Sour Cream     162
8%1 T Butter    100
4%1 T Cream     50
4%1 T Cream Cheese 50
6%6 oz Salmon       300
6%1 oz Cheese, natural, Cheddar or American 114
6%Egg, extra large, Sunny Meadow   87
6%Edy's No Sugar Added Vanilla Ice Cream    100
5%Whole Milk, 1 Cup       146